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Each and Every creature of GOD is explicitly different and unique. I and you are completely different individuals though we belong to homo sapiens family. We differ in almost every trait, the eyes color are different, we differ in our heights, our body type is different, we are pretty cool in our hair color and structure. Have you thought why are we different? I mean each person is different from others and what determines a person? Our body is made up of trillion number of cells, and these Cells also contain a suspense molecule which has all the information and can make copies of itself, this molecule is THE DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA determine all of our biological and physical characters, which are essentially determined by proteins.

Isn’t it amazing when we link technology which is human-made with the human body itself? So we know that the human body is made up of cells which contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) but have you heard computers made up of DNA????
YESS The computers of the future may not be made up of silicon, but of DNA!!!
Before proceeding let us know what role DNA has in our body and how can we correlate with the technology.

What is this biological molecule DNA??

DNA the lord of rings is the master molecule of every cell. It is basically an information-rich molecule that is passed on to each successive generations. It is a well-mannered molecule which helps itself is making(i.e replicating ) and other molecules like proteins. DNA seems to be complex appearing molecule but in fact, if we go through it is basically made of four blocks ( called as nucleotides) namely adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine).DNA is a molecule which is information-rich and can be used for computing in a variety of ways.

DNA computers

By some measures, DNA computers will prove many times better than the present ones. Let us now see how this information-rich molecule helps our computers. We know that Computer chips are built using logic gates (like AND, OR and NOT) that perform mathematical equations on given inputs. In the same way, these gates can be built from DNA( containing A T G C ) and connected up to run computations inside cells and before I proceed with this article manufacturers are horsing to make next microprocessor that will break all speed records. The microprocessor is made-up of silicon which will sooner or later limit their speed. To combat the speed limit in future manufacturers are looking for speed booster. Scientists have found this new material within a living organism which will prove to be the next generation of microprocessors.
Nature has gifted every living organisms with million of DNA in their cells including our magnificent body. Our genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which has the capacity to perform calculations many times faster than the world’s most powerful man-made computers. One day DNA is promised to be being integrated into a computer chip to create a so-called biochip that will lead computers even faster. DNA molecules have already been harnessed to perform complex mathematical problems.
If such computers become realistic then these DNA computers will be of full potential to store billion times more accurate data than your personal computer and probably by next decade silicon-based computers will be made of genetic material( DNA).
Since the research is still in the infancy stage, we can’t find these computers in our local market. The concept of DNA computer was not even in the picture a decade ago. It was only in 1994, Leonard Adleman brought up this novel idea of using DNA to solve complex mathematical problems.
Adleman is a computer scientist, and after reading the book ” molecular biology of the gene” by James Watson came to the conclusion that DNA Had computational potential. Like how computer hard drive saves your information same way DNA is responsible to save permanent information regarding your genes.

The success of DNA computer
We are aware of a well-known mathematical problem, called the directed Hamilton Path problem, also called the “traveling salesman” problem.
The idea of this puzzle is to find the shortest route between a number of cities, going through each city only once. As you add more cities to the problem, the problem becomes more difficult. Adleman chose to find the shortest route between seven cities using DNA computer.
The success of this problem using DNA computer proved that DNA had all the potential to solve the complex mathematical problem.
In this early stage, DNA computer is far from replacing silicon-based computers in terms of speed. Though DNA computer brought up a group of possible answers very quickly, it took days for Adleman to narrow down the possibilities. Since Adleman himself had to shortlist the possibilities it shows it requires human assistance, which proves to be a major drawback. The basic aim of any device is the capability that can work independently of human involvement.
Later scientists at the University of Rochester created logic gates made of DNA. Logic gates are a vital part of how your computer carries out functions that you command it to do. These gates convert binary code moving through the computer into a series of signals that the computer uses to perform operations. Currently, logic gates interpret input signals from silicon transistors and convert those signals into an output signal that allows the computer to perform complex functions.
The Rochester teams are looking forward to making DNA logic gates creating a computer that has a structure similar to that of an electronic PC. Logical operations are usually performed by electrical signals but these DNA logic gates rely on DNA code. Here the genetic material is input which initially detected as fragments then, splice together these fragments and form a single output. For instance, a genetic gate called the “And gate” links two DNA inputs by chemically binding them so they’re locked in an end-to-end structure, similar to the way two Legos might be fastened by a third Lego between them. The researchers believe that these logic gates might be combined with DNA microchips to create a breakthrough in DNA computing.
DNA computer will have two components — logic gates and biochips and scientists are looking forward o built this into a practical, workable DNA computer. If such a computer is ever built, scientists say that it will be more compact, accurate and efficient than conventional computers.

Silicon vs DNA
Silicon microprocessors have been ruling the heart of the computing world for more than 40 years. In that time, manufacturers have crammed more and more electronic devices onto their microprocessors. The number of electronic devices put on a microprocessor has doubled every 18 months. Gordon Moore, who predicted in 1965 that microprocessors would double in complexity every two years.
DNA computers have the potential to take computing to new levels, picking up from the end of silicon microprocessors
If we analyze we can see DNA computer will on the advantage side since is dependency will be on cellular organisms, there will always be a supply of DNA and the large supply of DNA will make it a cheaper source. And moreover, there will be no question of toxic materials used as the traditional ones, he DNA biochips can be made cleanly.

If these computers become reality then the major advantage will be size, it will make computers smaller than any computer of the past at the same time it will have the potential to hold more data. DNA computer will prove to be the world’s most powerful supercomputer containing DNA logic gates and with the ability to store more information with the teardrop-size computer. It is believed that 10 trillion DNA molecule can fit into an area no larger than 1 cubic centimeter. With this small area, a computer would be able to hold 10 terabytes of data and perform 10 million times calculations at a time. It can also mean the more DNA the more calculations could be performed. Today’s computer performs calculations or operates linearly, taking on tasks one at a time, but DNA computers will be capable of performing parallel calculations. And because of this parallel solving ability, it can solve the complex mathematical problem in hours. This powerful computer can be used by national governments for cracking secret codes, or airlines wanting to map more efficient routes.
And major advantage of this computer can be in understanding of a more complex computer- THE HUMAN BRAIN


1. How DNA Computers Will Work|BY KEVIN BONSOR 

Drafted by Nagama Nadaf
A technophile who is crazy about technology and passionate about blogging.
I care by sharing recent advancements in technology and try to reach out to the minds of people

Nagama Nadaf

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