Genetic engineering is an art to change the genetic makeup of an organism, Including plants animals and microorganisms.
It involves the manipulation of DNA in an organism or plant which changes its character in a particular way. By doing this the DNA is altered, and the originality of an organism is lost.
LET US KNOW WHAT IS DNA
DNA the lord of rings is the master molecule of every cell. It is basically an information-rich molecule that is passed on to each successive generations. It is a well-mannered molecule which helps itself is making(i.e replicating ) and other molecules like proteins. DNA seems to be complex appearing molecule but in fact, if we go through it is basically made of four blocks ( called as nucleotides) namely adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine( a-t, g-c).
NOW GENETIC ENGINEERING INVOLVES
·Since genetic engineering is genetic modification, which means altering either of one base pair(A-T, G-C), deleting the whole region of DNA, or introducing an additional copy of the gene.
·It also includes extracting DNA from one organism and introducing in another organism.
LET US SEE HOW IT WORKS IN A SIMPLIFIED WAY
·The desired characteristic is selected, and the gene responsible for this characteristic is noted.
·Now, this gene which is noted is ‘cut off’ the chromosome using enzymes.
·‘Cut off’ gene is inserted into a vector and this vector transfer the desired gene into another organism
·The organism which received the gene is modified, and it is replicated.
Benefits of genetic engineering
·Compared to selective breeding this technique is faster and comparatively efficient.
·Genetic engineering promises to improve crop quality and yield, which will be a boon in developing countries.
· Using his technology insect and pest resistant gene can be inserted into plants. Hence the plant produces a toxin, which would kill the pest.
Hazards of genetic engineering
·Transfer of selected gene from one species to another might benefit one while harming others.
·This may lead to genetic defects.
·There might be side effects which will be unexpected.
This technology brings about both advantages as well as disadvantage, but there must be complete control and authorized to manage negative when it occurs.